A colony of the French Empire since 1830, Algeria was recognized as a legal department of France in 1848. Dominated by a minority of French and European settlers , French businesses profited from the low wages and the discrimination and poverty of the mainly Muslim Algerians.
In 1954 The Algerian War of Independence was declared between France and its loyalist supporters and the Muslim Algerian Independence Movement. This led to General De Gaulle announcing Algerian Independence in 1962.
The long and bloody anti-colonial conflict was characterized by Guerilla warfare, terror, torture and counter terrorism operations.
The French “Scorched Earth ” policy of burning down villages caused the flight of their inhabitants who became refugees across the border in Tunisia, where I photographed some of them in 1958.